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Dependency theory states that the poverty of the countries in on his broader theory of underdevelopment and the issues of.
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Wikipedia on Feminist Theory. Marxism is the political philosophy and economic practice based upon a materialist interpretation of history, a critical analysis of capitalism, a theory of social change, and an atheist view of human liberation derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Friedrich Engels Co-author of Communist Manifesto.

The Communist Manifesto. The Marxism Page. Marxism and Intl.

Dependency Theories | Marxist Theories of Imperialism | Taylor & Francis Group

World Systems Theory It characterizes the world system as a set of mechanisms which redistributes resources from the periphery to the core. In his terminology, the core is the developed, industrialized, democratic part of the world, and the periphery is the underdeveloped, raw materials-exporting, poor part of the world; the market being the means by which the core exploits the periphery.

Underdevelopment and Development

Summary of World Systems Theory. Role in the Current World System. Wikipedia description of WST. For example, the relationship between the former dependent states in the socialist bloc the Eastern European states and Cuba, for example closely paralleled the relationships between poor states and the advanced capitalist states. The possibility that dependency is more closely linked to disparities of power rather than to the particular characteristics of a given economic system is intriguing and consistent with the more traditional analyses of international relations, such as realism.

There are a number of propositions, all of which are contestable, which form the core of dependency theory. These propositions include:.

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Underdevelopment is a condition fundamentally different from undevelopment. The latter term simply refers to a condition in which resources are not being used. For example, the European colonists viewed the North American continent as an undeveloped area: the land was not actively cultivated on a scale consistent with its potential.

Underdevelopment refers to a situation in which resources are being actively used, but used in a way which benefits dominant states and not the poorer states in which the resources are found. The distinction between underdevelopment and undevelopment places the poorer countries of the world is a profoundly different historical context.

These countries are not "behind" or "catching up" to the richer countries of the world.


They are not poor because they lagged behind the scientific transformations or the Enlightenment values of the European states. They are poor because they were coercively integrated into the European economic system only as producers of raw materials or to serve as repositories of cheap labor, and were denied the opportunity to market their resources in any way that competed with dominant states.

Dependency theory suggests that alternative uses of resources are preferable to the resource usage patterns imposed by dominant states. There is no clear definition of what these preferred patterns might be, but some criteria are invoked. For example, one of the dominant state practices most often criticized by dependency theorists is export agriculture. The criticism is that many poor economies experience rather high rates of malnutrition even though they produce great amounts of food for export.

Many dependency theorists would argue that those agricultural lands should be used for domestic food production in order to reduce the rates of malnutrition.

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The preceding proposition can be amplified: dependency theorists rely upon a belief that there exists a clear "national" economic interest which can and should be articulated for each country. In this respect, dependency theory actually shares a similar theoretical concern with realism. What distinguishes the dependency perspective is that its proponents believe that this national interest can only be satisfied by addressing the needs of the poor within a society, rather than through the satisfaction of corporate or governmental needs.

Trying to determine what is "best" for the poor is a difficult analytical problem over the long run. Dependency theorists have not yet articulated an operational definition of the national economic interest. The diversion of resources over time and one must remember that dependent relationships have persisted since the European expansion beginning in the fifteenth century is maintained not only by the power of dominant states, but also through the power of elites in the dependent states. Dependency theorists argue that these elites maintain a dependent relationship because their own private interests coincide with the interests of the dominant states.

These elites are typically trained in the dominant states and share similar values and culture with the elites in dominant states. Thus, in a very real sense, a dependency relationship is a "voluntary" relationship. One need not argue that the elites in a dependent state are consciously betraying the interests of their poor; the elites sincerely believe that the key to economic development lies in following the prescriptions of liberal economic doctrine.

Some of the most important new issues include:. The success of the advanced industrial economies does not serve as a model for the currently developing economies.

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When economic development became a focused area of study, the analytical strategy and ideological preference was quite clear: all nations need to emulate the patterns used by the rich countries. Indeed, in the s and s there was a paradigmatic consensus that growth strategies were universally applicable, a consensus best articulated by Walt Rostow in his book, The Stages of Economic Growth.

Dependency theory suggests that the success of the richer countries was a highly contingent and specific episode in global economic history, one dominated by the highly exploitative colonial relationships of the European powers. A repeat of those relationships is not now highly likely for the poor countries of the world.

Dependency theory repudiates the central distributive mechanism of the neoclassical model, what is usually called "trickle-down" economics. The neoclassical model of economic growth pays relatively little attention to the question of distribution of wealth. Its primary concern is on efficient production and assumes that the market will allocate the rewards of efficient production in a rational and unbiased manner. This assumption may be valid for a well-integrated, economically fluid economy where people can quickly adjust to economic changes and where consumption patterns are not distorted by non-economic forces such as racial, ethnic, or gender bias.

Several scholars have also expressed the view that the Atlantic slave trade was responsible for Africa's socio-economic inertia, political ineptitude, technological backwardness and sundry dislocations. The most prominent of these scholars is probably Nathan Nunn, who has attempted to show the link between the slave trade, the legacy of extractive colonial institutions and Africa's underdevelopment.

According to him, "recent studies have found evidence linking Africa's current underdevelopment to colonial rule and slave trade. An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while. Read preview.

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Introduction Africa is the lowest income region in the world.